According to Ben Rooney of CNNMoney.com, America’s considerable trade deficits continue to rise due in most part to China’s trade policies and currency manipulation. Twelve experts in trade and defense that make up the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission have advised lawmakers that China's economic policies are nothing less than currency manipulation. The chairman of the commission, Dan Slane, states that “China’s currency manipulation continues to harm U.S. manufacturing and employment” as well as the appearance of China’s lack of “motivation…to adopt market-based approaches with regards to its currency.” The commission has urged the Obama administration to take action in creating more pressure on China to let the yuan flow freely and increase in value, which has come up in the agenda recently. In June, China proposed that it would do just that, however, the change is almost nonexistent in comparison to global trade imbalances, with only a 2.3% appreciation of the yuan this year. While the U.S. and trade partners claim China is “hoarding reserves” and “undercutting international competitors” with extremely inexpensive exports, China claims that its economy and social stability would suffer if it allows the yuan to grow too strong. China also uses “exclusionary” policies not covered under WTO (World Trade Organization) regulations to restrict access to its markets. The commission believes that finding ways to get around these policies that have contributed to the impressive U.S. trade deficit will be crucial to improving the trade imbalance. This imbalance is what has helped China grow economically, technologically and financially. However, with China holding huge quantities of U.S. debt, the effects of China discontinuing money lending to the U.S. would be quite harmful to its economy and likely drive interest rates higher.